Research and development expenditure from 2012 to 2020 (percent of GDP)

Gross domestic spending on R&D is defined as the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D carried out by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government laboratories, etc., in a country. It includes R&D funded from abroad, but excludes domestic funds for R&D performed outside the domestic economy. This indicator is measured in USD constant prices using 2010 base year and Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs) and as percentage of GDP.

Country
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
Algeria
0.53
Angola
0.03
Argentina
0.63
0.62
0.59
0.62
0.56
0.56
0.49
0.46
Armenia
0.24
0.22
0.24
0.25
0.23
0.23
0.19
0.18
0.21
Australia
2.18
1.92
1.88
1.83
Austria
2.91
2.95
3.08
3.05
3.12
3.06
3.09
3.13
3.20
Azerbaijan
0.21
0.21
0.21
0.22
0.21
0.18
0.18
0.20
0.22
Bahrain
0.10
Belarus
0.65
0.65
0.51
0.50
0.50
0.58
0.60
0.58
0.55
Belgium
2.28
2.33
2.37
2.43
2.52
2.67
2.86
3.16
3.48
Bermuda
0.23
0.20
0.19
0.20
0.23
0.26
0.23
Bosnia and Herzegovina
0.27
0.32
0.26
0.22
0.22
0.20
0.19
0.19
0.21
Botswana
0.26
0.54
Brazil
1.13
1.20
1.27
1.37
1.29
1.12
1.17
1.21
Brunei Darussalam
0.28
Bulgaria
0.60
0.63
0.79
0.95
0.77
0.74
0.75
0.83
0.85
Burkina Faso
0.20
0.61
0.17
0.25
Burundi
0.11
0.21
Côte d'Ivoire
0.07
Cabo Verde
Cambodia
0.12
Canada
1.77
1.71
1.71
1.69
1.73
1.69
1.68
1.59
1.70
Chad
0.30
Chile
0.36
0.39
0.38
0.38
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.34
China
1.91
2.00
2.02
2.06
2.10
2.12
2.14
2.24
2.40
China, Hong Kong SAR
0.73
0.73
0.74
0.76
0.79
0.84
0.86
0.93
0.99
China, Macao SAR
0.05
0.05
0.09
0.14
0.23
0.17
0.20
0.25
0.45
Colombia
0.22
0.26
0.30
0.37
0.27
0.26
0.31
0.32
0.29
Costa Rica
0.55
0.54
0.56
0.44
0.44
0.43
0.37
Croatia
0.74
0.80
0.77
0.83
0.85
0.85
0.95
1.08
1.25
Cuba
0.41
0.47
0.42
0.43
0.34
0.43
0.54
0.55
0.52
Cyprus
0.44
0.49
0.51
0.48
0.52
0.54
0.62
0.71
0.82
Czechia
1.77
1.88
1.96
1.92
1.67
1.77
1.90
1.93
1.99
Dem. Rep. of the Congo
0.41
Denmark
2.98
2.97
2.91
3.05
3.09
2.93
2.97
2.89
2.96
Ecuador
0.33
0.38
0.44
Egypt
0.51
0.64
0.64
0.72
0.71
0.68
0.72
0.84
0.96
El Salvador
0.03
0.06
0.09
0.14
0.14
0.18
0.17
0.17
Estonia
2.12
1.72
1.43
1.47
1.24
1.28
1.42
1.63
1.79
Eswatini
0.27
Ethiopia
0.60
0.27
Finland
3.40
3.27
3.15
2.87
2.72
2.73
2.76
2.80
2.94
France
2.23
2.24
2.28
2.23
2.22
2.20
2.20
2.19
2.35
Gambia
0.07
Georgia
0.08
0.17
0.30
0.29
0.27
0.28
0.28
0.30
Germany
2.88
2.84
2.88
2.93
2.94
3.05
3.11
3.17
3.14
Ghana
Greece
0.71
0.81
0.84
0.97
1.01
1.15
1.21
1.28
1.50
Guatemala
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
Honduras
0.01
0.04
Hungary
1.25
1.38
1.34
1.34
1.18
1.32
1.51
1.48
1.61
Iceland
1.69
1.94
2.18
2.11
2.08
2.00
2.32
2.47
India
0.74
0.71
0.70
0.69
0.67
0.67
0.66
Indonesia
0.08
0.25
0.24
0.23
0.27
0.28
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
0.32
0.25
0.42
0.83
0.88
Iraq
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.04
Ireland
1.56
1.57
1.52
1.18
1.18
1.26
1.17
1.23
1.23
Israel
4.14
4.07
4.16
4.26
4.51
4.66
4.80
5.14
5.44
Italy
1.26
1.30
1.34
1.34
1.37
1.37
1.42
1.46
1.53
Japan
3.17
3.28
3.37
3.24
3.11
3.17
3.22
3.20
3.26
Jordan
0.70
Kazakhstan
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.12
0.13
Kenya
Korea, Republic of
3.85
3.95
4.08
3.98
3.99
4.29
4.52
4.63
4.81
Kuwait
0.10
0.30
0.43
0.10
0.08
0.08
0.06
0.19
0.19
Kyrgyz Republic
0.17
0.15
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.11
0.10
0.09
0.09
Latvia
0.66
0.61
0.69
0.62
0.44
0.51
0.64
0.64
0.71
Lesotho
0.05
Lithuania
0.89
0.95
1.03
1.04
0.84
0.90
0.94
0.99
1.16
Luxembourg
1.21
1.23
1.22
1.25
1.27
1.24
1.17
1.18
1.13
Madagascar
0.01
0.01
0.01
Malaysia
1.09
1.26
1.28
1.42
1.04
Mali
0.31
0.29
0.16
Malta
0.80
0.74
0.69
0.72
0.55
0.56
0.59
0.59
0.68
Mauritania
0.01
Mauritius
0.18
0.37
0.35
0.37
0.42
Mexico
0.42
0.43
0.44
0.43
0.39
0.33
0.31
0.28
0.30
Mongolia
0.24
0.23
0.22
0.16
0.18
0.13
0.10
0.09
0.13
Montenegro
0.37
0.36
0.37
0.32
0.35
0.50
0.36
Morocco
Mozambique
0.31
Myanmar
0.03
0.06
0.09
0.15
Namibia
0.35
Nepal
Netherlands
1.92
2.16
2.17
2.15
2.15
2.18
2.14
2.18
2.29
New Zealand
1.15
1.23
1.35
1.41
Nicaragua
0.10
0.10
0.09
0.11
North Macedonia
0.33
0.44
0.52
0.44
0.44
0.35
0.36
0.37
0.38
Norway
1.62
1.65
1.72
1.94
2.04
2.10
2.05
2.15
2.28
Oman
0.21
0.17
0.21
0.25
0.26
0.23
0.22
0.31
0.37
Pakistan
0.29
0.25
0.24
0.20
Panama
0.08
0.06
0.14
0.12
0.14
0.15
Papua New Guinea
0.03
Paraguay
0.07
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.15
0.15
0.14
Peru
0.06
0.08
0.11
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.13
0.16
0.17
Philippines
0.13
0.16
0.32
Poland
0.88
0.88
0.94
1.00
0.96
1.03
1.21
1.32
1.39
Portugal
1.38
1.32
1.29
1.24
1.28
1.32
1.35
1.40
1.62
Qatar
0.48
0.52
0.53
Republic of Moldova
0.35
0.30
0.31
0.31
0.28
0.25
0.25
0.24
0.23
Romania
0.49
0.39
0.38
0.49
0.48
0.50
0.50
0.48
0.47
Russian Federation
1.03
1.03
1.07
1.10
1.10
1.11
0.99
1.04
1.10
Rwanda
0.65
0.76
Saudi Arabia
0.88
0.82
0.52
Senegal
0.58
Serbia
0.85
0.68
0.72
0.81
0.84
0.87
0.92
0.89
0.91
Seychelles
0.22
Singapore
1.92
1.92
2.08
2.17
2.07
1.90
1.81
1.89
Slovakia
0.80
0.82
0.88
1.16
0.79
0.89
0.84
0.83
0.91
Slovenia
2.56
2.56
2.37
2.20
2.01
1.87
1.95
2.05
2.15
South Africa
0.67
0.66
0.71
0.73
0.75
0.76
0.69
0.62
Spain
1.30
1.28
1.24
1.22
1.19
1.21
1.24
1.25
1.41
Sri Lanka
0.10
0.10
0.11
0.13
0.13
0.13
State of Palestine
0.45
Sweden
3.23
3.26
3.10
3.22
3.25
3.36
3.32
3.39
3.53
Switzerland
2.85
3.04
3.03
3.15
Syrian Arab Republic
0.02
Türkiye
0.83
0.81
0.86
0.88
0.94
0.95
1.03
1.06
1.09
Tajikistan
0.11
0.12
0.12
0.10
0.11
0.11
0.09
0.09
0.09
Thailand
0.44
0.48
0.62
0.78
1.00
1.11
1.14
Togo
0.22
0.27
Trinidad and Tobago
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.09
0.09
0.09
0.08
0.06
Tunisia
0.65
0.64
0.62
0.59
0.57
0.70
0.72
0.75
Uganda
0.14
Ukraine
0.72
0.73
0.65
0.61
0.48
0.45
0.47
0.43
0.41
United Arab Emirates
0.69
0.90
0.96
1.28
1.31
1.45
United Kingdom
1.57
1.61
1.63
1.63
1.64
1.66
1.70
1.71
United Republic of Tanzania
0.51
United States of America
2.68
2.71
2.72
2.78
2.85
2.90
3.00
3.17
3.45
Uruguay
0.33
0.32
0.34
0.36
0.38
0.45
0.39
0.48
Uzbekistan
0.16
0.16
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.15
0.12
0.11
0.14
Venezuela (Bolivarian Rep. of)
0.25
0.32
0.34
Vietnam
0.37
0.44
0.53
0.53

Source: World Bank